University of Sheffield Photo Soc

Making Prints

  1. Check to see if there is any Paper Developer, Stop and Fixer in the small, black bottles.
  2. If there is no Paper Developer, measure out 40cm3 of Paper developer and fill up to 400cm3 with water.
  3. Similarly, if there is no Stop, measure out 20cm3 of Stop and fill up to 400cm3.
  4. Similarly, if there is no Fixer, measure out 60cm3 of Fixer and fill up to 300cm3.
  5. Pour the Paper Developer, Stop and Fixer into the appropriate trays.
  6. Select your negative and place in negative carrier, shiny-side-up, and upside down.
  7. Switch off the white light but keep the red safelight on, so you can see what you are doing.
  8. Focus and frame your image on the masking board as you want it, adjusting the height of the negative to change the size of the image and using the knob at the bottom of the enlarger to focus the image.
  9. Set the aperture to f8 or higher (f16 or f22). This allows more error for focusing inaccuracies.
  10. Set the coloured filters depending upon the contrast required.
  11. Take out a piece of paper ready to make a test print.
  12. Covering none of the paper, switch on the enlarger light for say 3 seconds.
  13. Covering about 20%, expose the paper for another 3 seconds.
  14. Do this about four times over the sheet, so that each section of paper has been exposed for different amounts of time, i.e. 3 seconds, 6 seconds, 9 seconds, 12 seconds, etc.
  15. Place the paper in the Developer and agitate it for 90 seconds.
  16. Remove from Developer and place in Stop for 30 seconds.
  17. Remove from Stop and place in Fixer for at least 90 seconds.
  18. Switch the white light on and assess the strip of paper.
  19. It may be necessary to make another test strip for longer/shorter time intervals if the first one was too light/dark respectively.
  20. When a suitable test strip has been made, judge, in bright light, how long the final image will require.
  21. If you want to change the contrast of the image, adjust the coloured filters, remembering that by adjusting the filter you will alter how long an image needs exposing for. It may be necessary to make another test strip.
  22. Take out another piece of paper and make an exposure at the estimated time.
  23. Put the paper through the chemicals as before.
  24. Once you have taken the photograph out of the Fixer, wash the photograph under cold running water for at least five minutes, to remove all the chemicals. Squeegee off any water droplets and dry in the drier.
  25. When you have finished, make sure you don’t forget to take your negatives with you!



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